In the Introduction a statement was made outling the restraints impacting Modularisation. The reality of the current status of this situation can be best shown by Requirements versus Solutions. Many current press articles on the subject of Modularisation request a Standard Solution for the design of Module, Design of its Installation, Site etc e.g.:

The result to the above standard List of Dream Style Questions, are the Reality Answers conditioned by the requirements for

Variability of Product Processed, Sweet Crude, Sour Crude, Produced Water etc
Variability of Location, Variability of Ownership, Contractor, Subcontractor versus Owner
Variability of Other interest e.g. Contract, Period of Lease, Insurance, Legal System, etc.

Over the last five decades, numerous articles have elaborated a solution using standard Topsides/Refinery/ Modules. The answer has always been conditioned by the divergent requirements. A Possible solution has been the use of Generic Designs. If one looks at the status of CALMS then ABS have the requirements of generic design of Can Buoy for a CALM. This can be designed and built and gets a Maltese Cross Mark showing that it is built under survey and complies with ABS requirements. Two players/suppliers concerning this item can meet the generic requirements; one offers a buoy with a rotating arm for the Offloading Connection the other the solution where the whole buoy rotates. If you relate this response to a generic design for complete Topsides you end up with a similarly dissimilar design. In General there are two predominant facts concerning most designs: - "Horses for Courses", e.g." over the sticks" versus "the flat" and “Best Fit" e.g. at any point in time the design should meet the requirements with a satisfactory outcome for cost, process, quality etc. Given these facts then the best acheivable is an optimisation using a Standard Hull if available, a Standard Process if one exists, Standard Modules if practical etc.,    
Swivel, Shallow Tidal Waters, this horse for this course
Swivel, Shallow Tidal Waters, this horse for this course
Some other areas of this subject do lend themselves to Modularisation.

In respect to Subsea ( Go 1f Demand ). some emphasis has been placed on standardised solutions. Standard Well Head Trees in Modular Cells in a common Well Head Frame have been used and referred to as modules or modular.

In respect to On Shore applications,  multiples of units (Modular) have produced solutions. Land Rigs requiring road vehicle movements have been designed on a modular basis, large scale output is acheived by manifolding the units together. Similar occaisionally used items allow combination (as modules) to meet demand. See  (Go 1f Demand) .    

Some of the requirements which are major aspects impacting on solutions deal with the Real Estate available to site the item, the schedule/time available to produce it, the location where it is manufactured, constructed, used, the space required for for these activities and the demands that promote modularisation.
To follow these go to the leval 2 buttons above for :-     1b Real Estate,
                                                                                             1c Schedule,
                                                                                             1d Location,
                                                                                             1e Space &
                                                                                             1f Demand
               which illustrate these.
Standard Refinery
Standard Process Unit
Standard Process
Standard Case,            
Standard Topside Standard FPSO
Standard Modules
Standard Equipment
Standard Standards
The Designer should be pragmatic, chose the design that best fits all of the requirements
a general understanding of Modules 
Index, 1 INTRODUCTION,  Aspects
    Where you see this     ,      Click too View
a general understanding of Modules 
Level 1
Level 2
Level 2